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For example:

  • 一日{いちにち} = one day (duration);
  • 一日{ついたち} = first day of the month.

First of all, are the meanings correct? Because I found contradicting answers.
I suspect the meanings are overlapping in some cases?

Then, after a quick search, I found out that okurigana is efficient to disambiguate them. Didn't the author mean furigana instead? Maybe I didn't grasp something here.

Lastly, what are the most important (to know)/most frequent homographic Kanji out there?

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I didn't find a tag with "homographic-kanji", I'll create a tag wiki for that. –  Alenanno Oct 11 '11 at 10:02
    
"duration" would be 一日中 –  Axioplase Oct 11 '11 at 10:14
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Actually 一日中 means throughout the day, and 一日 can be used as a durational count. –  Flaw Oct 11 '11 at 10:32
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Can someone please explain the close vote? It's not helpful to vote to close a question that actually shows a real problem, especially without giving an explanation for that close vote. In this case then, about close-vote reason that was "NARQ", I'd like to ask who voted: please, stand up and explain why my question would be "ambiguous, vague, incomplete, or rhetorical" and why it can't be "reasonably answered in its current form." Thank you –  Alenanno Oct 12 '11 at 15:48
1  
@Alenanno: I voted NARQ. You'll notice I tried to answer (even before voting). Trying to answer convinced me the question, as is, wasn't proper. And it's also one single vote; you don't have to take that badly. As far as I know, the question is still open, as the community decided… –  Axioplase Oct 13 '11 at 5:27
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1 Answer

First of all, are the meanings correct?

Yes, you are right.

Then, after a quick search, I found out that okurigana is efficient to disambiguate them. Didn't the author mean furigana instead?

Yes, he's wrong.

Lastly, what are the most important (to know)/most frequent homographic Kanji out there?

Err, all the X中, where 中 is read ちゅう or じゅう.
And also 今日 こんにち(today, nowadays, or in "こんにちは")/きょう(today), or 明日 あす/あした/みょうにち、 昨日 さくじつ/きのう 今年 こんねん/ことし… Basically, the "on.yomi" is more formal than the other readings.

I have no idea how to rank anything (which I can't even remember) by importance… I'd like to say that there aren't that many, and that answering would be vain, barely a useful information (if you ignore proper nouns…)

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Your answer is good enough, but about the examples... I was not really requiring a "rank" type of list... Just a small list, or some examples, about some expressions that have the same issues. Something on the lines of "These are the most known exceptions" for grammar. :) And 今日 is also read こんにち? I thought it only was きょう... –  Alenanno Oct 13 '11 at 10:18
    
Yes, "こんにち" means "nowadays". –  Axioplase Oct 13 '11 at 10:39
    
Great! So きょう means "today" and こんにち means "nowadays"? If you organize that part of the answer to highlight these differences, it'd be wonderful! I was looking for something like that. :) –  Alenanno Oct 13 '11 at 10:43
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