a burglar is usually associated with someone who breaks into a house (victim is usually unaware during the burglary)
a robber is usually associated with that person who uses weapons and threatens you to give him your property (victim-aware of course)
a mugger is usually associated with a robber on the street (victim-aware)
a thief is usually one who sneakily steals things without resorting to violence (victim-unaware)
a pickpocket is usually associated with a thief on the street (victim-unaware)
So what exactly is the exact nuance of a 泥棒? perhaps most likely there isn't a 1-to-1 match so probably could someone write an explanation of 泥棒 without using words like robber/mugger/thief/pickpocket/burglar etc
Side question: if we change 泥棒 to the hiragana form どろぼう, does it affect the nuance in any way?