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These verbs:

Are all listed as 五段 verbs, but they don't follow the usual conjugation rules for them.
For example:

  • 命令形: いらっしゃる -> いらっしゃい, not いらっしゃれ
  • 連用形: Same as above, not いらっしゃり

Is there a separate name/classification for these types of verbs? Such as カ変 for 来る and サ変 for する.

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And ござる, today in the form ございます. –  snailboat Jun 9 '14 at 8:08
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It also bears noting that expected regular forms such as いらっしゃります or くださります did exist. C.f. 「一升ざけを 下さります 」 from the Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige‌​, written in the early 1800s, or 「どなたもよふ いらっしゃりました 。きつひ御見かぎりで ござります 」 from the Kakutsū Yūshi by Utagawa Kunimasa, published in 1797. I suspect the modern forms arose as a kind of contraction or erosion common in oft-used words, such that the interstitial /-r-/ dropped out of the stem forms for the 連用形 and the 命令形. –  Eiríkr Útlendi Jun 9 '14 at 18:18
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My guess is that these are remnants of western dialect in the standard language from when the power shifted from West to East, similar to ありがとう,おはよう,ようこそ etc. instead of ありがたく,おはやく,よくこそ. But others probably know the details better than I do. –  dainichi Jun 10 '14 at 1:33
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I haven't found an explanation for why /r/ is elided only in those five verbs and only in certain constructions (e.g. with ます). Martin 1975 does note that the /r/ is retained in certain other constructions (see p.347). –  snailboat Jun 10 '14 at 2:58

1 Answer 1

dainichi's comment in the OP is right.

These are left-overs of western dialect that are actually still used today:

Wants たい ー> とう (usually in the negative)

  • 行きたくないな・行きとうないな or 行きとうなかね

て/た forms of 「う」verbs

  • 何買ったの?・なんこうたと?

General Phonetic Shift ら行 sounds to い

  • それ何?・そいなん?
  • その人誰?・そん人だいね?
  • 二人は?・ふたいは?

Scolding

  • 早く行きなさいよ!・はよう行きんしゃい!

With these it's easy to see how ありがとう and いらっしゃい came about.

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It could help to explain a little further: as I understand it, ありがとう is from ありがたく. When the /k/ was lost, that gave ありがたう, and the regular sound change from /au/ to /oː/ resulted in ありがとう. So とう is not directly from たい. –  snailboat Dec 28 '14 at 4:10
    
You're right yeah, I'll make the edit. –  fosskers Dec 28 '14 at 6:04

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