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I received this message:「行けることになりやした」. Doing a quick Google search for なりやした, I found a few phrases like 「新米母になりやした!」and 「遅くなりやした。」

Is it a kind of slang for なりました?

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Do you suppose it could just be a typo? The gesture-based Japanese input interface for my phone has the button for all the ま行 letters next to the button for all the や行 letters, so I could definitely see somebody with a similar input interface making that error. – senshin May 3 '14 at 0:16
Why google it in the past tense if you really want to learn? The first thing you sould have done was to look up やす in a good monolingual dictionary. – l'électeur May 3 '14 at 0:17
up vote 5 down vote accepted

It's used by characters in movies etc. depicting typically edo-period. It's allegedly how lower-ranking (lower social status) people talked to higher ranking people in those times. I don't know if this is actually the case, but that's the stereotype.

When used in today's setting, the speaker is joking.

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If a young dude (from anywhere) said やす or やした today, the chances are that he would only be kidding around or trying to sound like a manga character. However, if an older male (and working-class) Tokyoite said it today, the chances are that that is just how he always speaks. – l'électeur May 3 '14 at 1:19

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