I understand that 教わる【おそわる】 is the intransitive of 教える【おしえる】 (to teach), however I'm not sure how to use it properly outside of possibly in an adjectival context (e.g. 授業で教わったこと). In practice, what is the difference between 教わる and any of the myriad verbs for "to learn" (習う【ならう】, 学ぶ【まなぶ】, etc.)?
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I think the difference is that 習う、学ぶ can be done by yourself, whereas 教わる can't be done just by yourself: you need someone (or something) else to teach you. Note that 教わる is "to be taught."
When you say
you implicitly mean that you were taught by a teacher. On the other hand, you aren't implying that you were taught by someone in
In the latter example, the class could have been a self-studying session where you teach yourself (you don't use 教わる when you teach yourself).
教わる and 習う are almost interchangeable when you say:
I think 教わる is more used by older people. Your ma or grandma might ask 今日は何を教わったの？ then you'd reply つるかめ算(を)習った。(I don't know why, maybe 教わる is politer than 習う? but you'd say 教えていただいた/教えていただきました, which is the humble form of 教えてもらった/教えてもらいました, to sound respectful to the teacher.)
今日、授業で教わったこと, 授業で習ったこと, 授業で学んだこと sound almost the same to me, in meaning. 学んだこと sounds more formal and can also mean "something I became aware of / realized from today's lesson (something more, something deeper than what you were taught)". 習った/教わった sound more passive and 学んだ sounds more active to me.
As a more general note, you can also use 教わる in a faux-passive kind of way like you would use 教えられる, like その人に日本語を教わった。