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I just wanted to make sure that my understanding is correct.

When saying Chapter 22, Act 22, or Episode 22 (basically parts of a larger piece), it normally starts with 第22 (or 第[number]) and then the counter. Right? And 第 is another way of saying 目? Basically -th, ie.: fifth, sixth, second, first, ninth. So all I need is the counter for the word I'm using. For instance, the counter for "chapter" is: 章. And the counter for "episode", according to this thread, is: 話.

Is my understanding correct?

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You are correct on for "episode" and for "chapter" (the Bible in Japanese uses for chapter). I'm not sure about "act", but multiple searches show [幕]{まく}. Also related is [巻]{かん} for "volume" and [場]{ば} for "scene".

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ie the first act of a play = 劇の第1幕 (which is logical as the curtain often comes down at the end of an act to change the scenery). Seems that 段 can also be used for scene (which is logical as an act is split up into sections) – Tim Mar 13 '14 at 23:00

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