For instance, I'm trying to say 'I would die from boredom' and the best I can come up with is
However, I strongly suspect this isn't correct. It would also be useful to have the phrase "I suffer from..." laid out as well.
This is Japanese. We can't be confident in a translation without knowledge like who you're talking to, your relative status, written or spoken, what setting, etc. etc.
退屈で死ぬ would mean "to die from boredom". で is often used to mark the means or cause of something (cf. 病気で死ぬ=die from an illness, 水不足で死ぬ=die from dehydration, etc). Note that the particle marks what is before it. So you could say like 退屈で死ぬかもしれない for 'I would die from boredom'. To a friend in everyday conversation though, I would probably say something more like 退屈すぎて死ぬわ.