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I understand that 支配する means to rule. So I'm guessing the "されていた" in 支配されていた is a weird form of する. Is it in passive past te-form?

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What do you mean by "te-form"? Do you consider 支配している the te-form of 支配する? If so, you're absolutely right. –  dainichi Feb 12 at 1:44

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

Almost! ←「[惜]{お}しい!」 in Japanese.

The passive voice past is [支配]{しはい}された --- "was controlled".

支配されていた is passive voice past progressive --- "was being controlled"

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