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I've seen a few things on the former, but nothing in my materials mentions anything about the latter. Everything I have turned up has revealed precious little about it. Anyone have any info?

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It seems like there are a few questions hidden in here. Can you say a little more precisely what you want answered? – ssb Jan 17 '14 at 4:01
I think the ますように is this >> ending sentences with ように – user1016 Jan 17 '14 at 5:05
@TrevorAlexander: I thought 龍が如く meant "yakuza game"? – istrasci Jan 17 '14 at 15:50
I see what you did there. – Trevor Alexander Jan 17 '14 at 17:49
@ssb I know that both are used in comparisons, but nothing in my materials have told me about how they function, grammatically, or how widely they're used nowadays – Roy Fuentes Jan 18 '14 at 7:19
up vote 3 down vote accepted

如く only means 'similar to', while ように can mean either 'similar to' or 'I hope that'. Also, both uses of ように are perfectly modern, while 如く is rarely ever used in Modern Japanese outside of intentional archaisms.

As mentioned in the comments, 如く can take a genitive phrase with either の or the more archaic が, while ように can only take genitives with の. Also, I am not sure about the grammaticality of a 連体形+如く, but ように is quite happy with them - indeed, the desiderative use of ように requires one, and is one of the few cases where you'll see -ます used as a 連体形.

You may also on occasion come across the even more archaic form of 如く, 如し. Originally it was an adjective (though somewhat defective IIRC, I've only ever seen these two forms) - -し is the archaic 終止形 of adjectives (the modern form being -い, descended from the archaic 連体形 -き).

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