Take the 2-minute tour ×
Japanese Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the Japanese language. It's 100% free, no registration required.

Ex:美しい空が美しいままでありますように/空の如く、水の如く

I've seen a few things on the former, but nothing in my materials mentions anything about the latter. Everything I have turned up has revealed precious little about it. Anyone have any info?

share|improve this question
2  
It seems like there are a few questions hidden in here. Can you say a little more precisely what you want answered? –  ssb Jan 17 at 4:01
3  
I think the ますように is this >> ending sentences with ように –  Chocolate Jan 17 at 5:05
1  
@TrevorAlexander: I thought 龍が如く meant "yakuza game"? –  istrasci Jan 17 at 15:50
1  
I see what you did there. –  Trevor Alexander Jan 17 at 17:49
1  
@ssb I know that both are used in comparisons, but nothing in my materials have told me about how they function, grammatically, or how widely they're used nowadays –  Roy Fuentes Jan 18 at 7:19
show 1 more comment

1 Answer

up vote 2 down vote accepted

如く only means 'similar to', while ように can mean either 'similar to' or 'I hope that'. Also, both uses of ように are perfectly modern, while 如く is rarely ever used in Modern Japanese outside of intentional archaisms.

As mentioned in the comments, 如く can take a genitive phrase with either の or the more archaic が, while ように can only take genitives with の. Also, I am not sure about the grammaticality of a 連体形+如く, but ように is quite happy with them - indeed, the desiderative use of ように requires one, and is one of the few cases where you'll see -ます used as a 連体形.

You may also on occasion come across the even more archaic form of 如く, 如し. Originally it was an adjective (though somewhat defective IIRC, I've only ever seen these two forms) - -し is the archaic 終止形 of adjectives (the modern form being -い, descended from the archaic 連体形 -き).

share|improve this answer
add comment

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.