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I think I have an idea of the differences but I'm not sure. My goal was to say "put [something] on the floor".

To me, 床{ゆか}の上 sounds the best (not that means anything). For example: 服を床の上に置きます。

The dictionary definition of 床上{ゆかうえ} is 建物の床の上。また、床から上。. It looks it has more of a "above floor level" or "from the ground up" meaning, but I still see the English translation of "on a floor" (i.e. Rikaiちゃん). Is this misleading, or would something like 服を床上に置きます work?

Lastly, where would just plain old 床{ゆか} fit into this? Does it have a connotation of the floor or a bed? Is it ambiguous if I just said 服を床に置きます? (If so, does 床の上 not have that ambiguity?)

Bonus Credit: Have I missed anything that means "on the floor"?

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I don't see much difference between [床]{ゆか}に置きます and 床の上に置きます. (I think I normally say 床に置く or [下]{した}に置く in daily conversation.)
I don't think you say [床上]{ゆかうえ}に置きます. I think I hear/see [床上]{ゆかうえ} in [床上浸水]{ゆかうえしんすい} or 床上まで水に[浸]{つ}かる etc. (often on TV or in the newspaper) 

I think [床]{とこ/しょう} as "bed" is normally used in (a set phrase? like) [床]{とこ}に[就]{つ}く, [床]{とこ}に[入]{はい}る, [病床]{びょうしょう}, or [病]{やまい}の[床]{とこ}...

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でも、もし畳の部屋だったら?「床に置く」じゃなくて「畳(の上)に置く」って言いそう・・・ – user1016 Jan 12 '14 at 16:45
あと、[起床]{きしょう}、死の床、[床]{とこ}の[間]{ま}、[苗床]{なえどこ}、[床屋]{とこや}・・・ – user1016 Jan 16 '14 at 6:47

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