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I read that だんだん is more used in casual conversation, but is there any difference in meaning?

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In meaning, there is no difference and to say otherwise is nitpicking. They both mean "gradually", "step by step", etc.

As you said, the difference is in the rank of the word. だんだん is much more informal than [徐々]{じょじょ} (and it does not matter if you write だんだん in kanji as 段々).

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