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The many ways to say “and” in Japanese thread showed me that ~し, ~し can be used give reasons for something.

This room is clean, wide and also good partition, so most of the people like it.

ねむいし仕事があるし (I'm sleepy, and I have work to do, and...[I really don't want to] [so I can't do what you're asking])

Seems kind of like xし、 yし [だ]から z.

Can it be used the other way around: zから、 xし、 yし.  For example, 今は休暇だから本を読んでるし、泳げるようになってるし、リラックスしてる。

And how about for just serial actions, for example in reply to something like 今日は何をしてる?

By the way, I don't remember seeing ~し in any textbooks so far, is it something you'd only use with friends?

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is it ok to have multiple Shis in a sentence? Thought it was one of those things you weren't suppose to use more than once in a sentence. – Mark Hosang Jun 20 '11 at 13:06
Tae Kim briefly covers 〜し in Compound Sentences – sartak Jun 20 '11 at 13:41
up vote 9 down vote accepted


This is just my opinion for this particular sentence, but I'd go with the ~たり form here:


~し lists either actions or qualities, and while it resembles ~たり in that it doesn't specify an order in which the actions took place, it adds a "not only, but also" implication to it:

今年の夏は海に行った、山にも行った。 This summer I went to the ocean, and [not only that, I also went] to the mountains.

荷物が多い、雨も降ってきたし、どこかで休もうか。 We've a lot of luggage, and [not only this, but] it's started to rain, so shall we take a break somewhere?

(Above examples taken from page 198 of 初級を教える人のための日本語文法ハンドブック)

In sentences like the second one above, where multiple ~し constructions are used to provide reasons, as you saw in the other question, the last し can be replaced with から with hardly any change in meaning:

荷物が多いし、雨も降ってきたから、どこかで休もうか。 We've a lot of luggage, and it's started to rain, so shall we take a break somewhere?

~し can also get tacked onto the end of a sentence when that sentence provides justification for an immediately preceding statement:

せっかくパリまで来たんだから、観光でもしよう。天気もいいし。 We've come all the way to Paris, so let's do some sightseeing. The weather's nice, too.

このお店はすごくおいしいですよ。かなり安いですし。 The food here is amazingly good. And it's easy on the wallet, too.

~し can be used in both informal and formal settings (as seen in the second example immediately above, it can follow the polite form).

Mark Hosang kindly pointed out in the comments that in formal speech (and perhaps most commonly in written Japanese), the ~ます stem form of the verb する (し) is used as a transition between clauses, just as the ~て form (して) is used in spoken Japanese. From ALC:


Shanghai's real estate prices increased 24 percent over last year, and are now the highest in the country.

This is unrelated to the ~し form discussed in this question.

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Just an addition, while not a Shi, in formal sentences shite becomes shi and will look very simliar to the Kara shi you have listed here. Just mentioning as it might be a point of confusion. – Mark Hosang Jun 20 '11 at 13:08
@Mark: That's a good point; I'll edit my answer to make note of it. – Derek Schaab Jun 20 '11 at 13:47
Surely would have read it as the other し. Thanks for pointing that out guys. – Louis Jun 20 '11 at 14:13
This was a very informative answer. It has helped me better organise the usages of 〜し in my head. Thanks @Derek! – crunchyt Jun 22 '11 at 7:05

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