What is the the difference between どこでも vs. どこにでも vs. どこも? I thought どこでも was anywhere, どこにでも was everywhere, and どこも was also everywhere... but then I didn't know what the difference would be between the latter two.
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I think it might help you if rather than analyzing どこも and the rest as individual words, but as a instance of a general ‘interrogative + も’ pattern. That is from どこ ‘where/which place’ and the particle も ‘also/even’ one get どこも (doko mo) meaning something along the lines of ‘all/any place(s)’ or ‘no place’ given whether it is attached to an affirmative or negative predicate, respectively.
どこにも (doko ni mo) and どこでも (doko de mo) are just cases where you have other particles attached similar to cases like 〜には (-ni wa) or 〜では (-de wa).