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The question understanding 対する details [noun]に対する[noun], but what is the difference between [noun]に対しての[noun] and [noun]に対する[noun]?

Space ALC has a fair number of examples for both に対する and に対しての (though many more for に対する than に対しての).

The 日本語文型辞典 defines に対する as:

「それに対しての」「それに関しての」…「その問に対しての解答」のように、「NにたいしてのN」という形が用いられることもある。

and 〜に対して as 「そのものごとに向けて/応じて」… with one of the examples being:

現在容疑者に対しての取り調べが行われているところです。
"Presently there investigations being performed in regards with the suspect(s)."

Would 容疑者に対しての取り調べ and 容疑者に対する取り調べ have the same meaning in that sentence?

Are the two are always interchangeable, or are there some situations where one is more appropriate/natural than the other?

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In my opinion. Aに対してのB => A same level of importance in the discussion as B. Aに対するB => A is less important than B in the discussion. –  oldergod Mar 22 '13 at 8:47
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2 Answers

The PDF at http://repository.tufs.ac.jp/bitstream/10108/20017/1/jlc033002.pdf says of 山田敏弘(2002)「格助詞および複合格助詞の連体用法について」『岐阜大学国語文学』29、岐阜大学国語文学会 on page 25:

「に対する」と「に対しての」のような「2つ以上の連体形を持つ場合、微細な違いを除き、ほぼ用法に差はない」(p.42)と結論している。

And says that, while the differences between the two weren't examined in detail in that report, it can be thought there are hardly any differences which stand out between the two in meaning.

(It then goes on to compare the frequency of the two using Google counts and from that says that に対する is more frequent than に対しての, but Google counts may not be as reliable as you imagine so I'd take that with a grain of salt).

So I'd say, for most practical purposes, the two are interchangeable.

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I think the two are interchangeable whenever the syntax allows it.

I would go as far as saying that に対して is just the continuative form of に対する, which may be used as に対しての, where に対して is then thought of as postpositional phrase (if that's the right term; please correct me).

Only for modifying a noun do you have a choice between に対しての and に対する. Many of the examples listed for に対しての actually stem from に対してのみ. Only when 対して・対する should not modify the noun directly, like in

(人)にある行為に対しての弁明をする
give someone a reason for

might you want to choose に対しての over に対する.

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Not sure I understand. Why should 対する not modify 弁明 directly? –  dainichi Mar 22 '13 at 5:58
    
@dainichi To me ある行為に対してする弁明をする sounds like it is more likely to be parsed as (ある行為に対してする弁明)を(する) rather than (ある行為に対してする)(弁明をする). –  Earthliŋ Mar 22 '13 at 10:41
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