In this sentence, does に mean the same thing as から ?
Thank you very much for help!
In a sense, yes, but に is the correct choice here. 受ける takes two objects, a "direct" and an "indirect" object.
を will not be translated at all, and に will be translated as "from". から, too, often means "from" but applies more generally to verbs, even if they don't want to take an indirect object.
For 聞く, から and に have a different use:
In your case に受けた and から受けた mean the same thing, but 受けた wants its indirect object to be marked by に, so you should use に.
EDIT: As per the exchange with Chocolate below, I am not 100% clear on the difference between verb+から and verb+に any longer. It seems to be clear, though, that in this case both versions mean the same thing and both versions are equally acceptable. I also think a verb cannot take both から and に, so the difference in usage is even harder to determine (if there is any difference). I think that the example に聞く vs. から聞く suggests there is at least a conceptual difference, though.