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たとえば、おすしを食べてもいいですか? is for "May I eat sushi?". However I know that ちょっと、食べなくてもいいです。Is not the right phrase because that means: "Well, you don't have to eat (that)." So what is the response for "[Sorry,] you may not eat sushi."?

Afterthoughts (after reading istraci, chocolate, and the two "users" responses).

Could you use this in response? おすしを食べることができません。

Also, one is this grammatically correct and two, is this saying what I think it means (you may not eat sushi)? おすしを食べてもよくないです。

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Notice that in negation も changes to は. – firtree May 12 '13 at 6:40

Depending on the strength of the interdiction, you can answer:

  • すしは食べないでください "Please do not eat sushi" (plain negative form + でください)

  • すしは食べてはいけません "It's forbidden to eat sushi" (て form + は + いけません)

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There is also, 申し訳ございませんが、ここでは食事が禁止されております。 or …ここでは食べられません or …ここでは食べられないことになっています。 – Earthliŋ Feb 8 '13 at 15:08

Some others that haven't been mentioned yet. In first two that contain は, the は can be omitted depending on context and/or familiarity.

〜て(は)ならない - somewhat strong; commanding

  • [犯罪]{はん・ざい}を[犯]{おか}してはならない → You must not commit any crimes
  • その[部屋]{へや}に[入]{はい}ってはならない → You cannot enter that room

〜て(は)だめ - more causal/familiar, but still commanding

  • ポイ[捨]{す}てしちゃだめだよ! → Don't litter! (しちゃ = しては)
  • 一人で行ってはだめ → You must not go by yourself
  • ここでタバコ[吸]{す}ってはアカン! → You may not smoke here (アカン is Kansai-ben; from [明]{あ}かない)

[遠慮]{えん・りょ}(する) - refrain from; a polite way to state a rule or preference

  • [車内]{しゃない}での[通話]{つうわ}はご[遠慮]{えんりょ}ください → Please do not make calls inside the (train) car / Please refrain from making calls inside the (train) car
  • [機内]{きない}での[喫煙]{きつえん}はご遠慮[願]{ねが}います → You are requested to refrain from smoking inside the airplane.

~[禁止]{きん・し}/[厳禁]{げん・きん} - often used on signs

  • [立入禁止]{たち・いり・きん・し} → No entrance
  • [駐車禁止]{ちゅう・しゃ・きん・し} → No parking
  • [土足厳禁]{ど・そく・げん・きん} → "No shoes permitted" → Remove your shoes before entering

~こと - used only in writing, such as notices, instructions, etc.

  • [感電]{かん・でん}のおそれがありますので、手を[触]{ふ}れないこと → At the risk of being shocked, do not touch (Maybe the label on an electrical box)
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?? My edit was cancelled for some reason...(T_T) – user1016 Feb 8 '13 at 16:08
I was adding to my original answer, and I must have clicked "Update" a few seconds after you did. You can re-edit it if you wish. ごめん、ねっ! – istrasci Feb 8 '13 at 16:08
@Chocolate: forgot to tag you in my previous comment so that you'd see it. – istrasci Feb 8 '13 at 16:33
Ah I see, nvm~ (ここでタバコ吸ったらアカン or ここでタバコ吸うたらアカン might be more natural... 吸うたら is Kansai-ben, like [買]{こ}うたら for [買]{か}ったら, もうたら for もらったら, [会]{お}うたら for [会]{あ}ったら etc...) – user1016 Feb 8 '13 at 20:41
(Ah the question was modified and a further question was added-- but are the answerers not notified? I still don't know much about the system here) – user1016 Feb 11 '13 at 0:14

(I'm responding to your afterthoughts)

Could you use this in response? おすしを食べることができません。

I think you could say:
お寿司 食べることができません。
お寿司を食べること できません。
お寿司 食べられません。
or お寿司 食べること できません。etc.
... using the binding particle は somewhere.

one-- is this grammatically correct?
two-- is this saying what I think it means (you may not eat sushi)?

1-- No
2-- Hm, if I heard you say that I'd think you meant it... (^_^;)
I think you could say more like:
(I think "お寿司 ・・・" would sound more natural as a response to お寿司~~~ですか?)

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